TCP/IP Model vs OSI Model

We have talked in other posts about the OSI model, which is the de-facto standard model for describing and implementing IP communication networks. You might be thinking that the OSI model was the original standard created when the first computer networks started to appear, but this is wrong. The TCP/IP model is older than the […]




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OSI Layer 7: Application Layer

The Application Layer is the one which interacts with the user. A Software application that implements a communicating component, uses the OSI Application Layer to establish the application’s communication. For example a word processor that does not have communications capabilities, would not be concerned with the OSI Application Layer. On the other hand, an application […]




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OSI Layer 6: Presentation Layer

The main function of this layer is to define data formats, coding, and conversion functions that are applied to application layer data. These functions ensure that information sent from the application layer of one system would be readable by the application layer of another system. Encryption and compression of Data are also defined as Presentation […]




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OSI Layer 5: Session Layer

The Session Layer starts, controls, and manages communication conversations (sessions). Communication sessions consist of service requests and service responses that occur between applications located in different network devices. These requests and responses are coordinated by protocols implemented at the session layer. The session layer creates ways to imply which flows are part of the same […]




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OSI Layer 4: Transport Layer

The Transport Layer (e.g TCP) provides reliable delivery of Data by using error checking, acknowledgments, flow control, and sequence checking. Multiplexing of incoming data for different flows to applications on the same host (for example, TCP ports) is also performed. Flow control in this layer ensures that the transmitting device does not send more data […]




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OSI Layer 3: Network Layer

This Layer defines logical addressing (e.g IP address) in order to identify each endpoint in a network and provide end-to-end delivery of packets. Think of the Network Layer as the postal service in a country. When you want to send a letter to a friend, you just need to know the destination postal address (e.g […]




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